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Atomic nuclei are made up of protons and neutrons, although many of their characteristics are yet unknown. The neutron, in particular, eludes many measurements as an uncharged particle, and there remain numerous outstanding mysteries even ninety years after its discovery, such as its size and lifespan. The neutron is made up of three quarks linked together by gluons. Physicists employ electromagnetic form factors to characterize the neutron’s dynamic inner structure. They succeeded in detecting the form factor of the neutron in the energy range of 2 to 3.8 gigaelectronvolts – with more than 60 times the precision of earlier measurements – at the BESIII experiment in China. As a result, the form factor exhibits an oscillating pattern as a function of energy, with smaller deflections as energy increases. This unexpected behaviour demonstrates that nucleons do not have a basic structure. Theorists are now being pushed to provide models for this odd behaviour.

Aside from the form, the precise size of the nucleons is also being studied. A recent measurement of the proton radius on muonic hydrogen made headlines in 2010: the researchers discovered a substantially lower value than was previously known from measurements on normal hydrogen and electron-proton scattering tests. Is it possible that the divergence conceals new physics outside the Standard Model? New accurate quantum chromodynamic calculations hint to a reduced estimate for the proton radius, although physicists cannot rule out the bigger value entirely. As a result, it’s unclear whether systematic uncertainties in the various measurement methods aren’t the source of the error.

Another study uses myonic atoms: an international team was able to determine the radius of the atomic nucleus on myonic helium five times more precisely than before. Fundamental physical ideas may be evaluated in the future with the assistance of this new value, and natural constants can be computed even more accurately.

Protons, neutrons, pions, and other hadrons have mass, which is provided through the Higgs mechanism – but not entirely. For a proton is approximately twenty times heavier than can be explained just by the Higgs process. The triangular singularity, which details how particles might alter their identity by exchanging quarks and therefore appear to be a new particle, could provide one explanation. An international team of researchers has discovered evidence of this long-sought phenomenon in pion-hydrogen atom collisions. The triangular singularity mimics the presence of a four-quark particle.

While nuclear scientists believe that there are no systems made up entirely of protons, physicists have been looking for particles made up of two, three, or four neutrons for more than fifty years. If such a particle exists, aspects of the strong interaction theory would have to be rethought. Experiments at the accelerator facility on the Garching research site provide evidence that a particle composed of four bound neutrons does exist. The observations indicate that the tetra-neutron is roughly as stable as the neutron itself.


A hyperon is created when one of the three up and down quarks in a proton or neutron is replaced by a strange quark. Hyper nuclei are atomic nuclei that contain one or more hyperons. They can be produced by particle collisions at accelerators. Their decays can then be seen and their attributes thoroughly investigated. Such studies will be carried out in the future with the new Wide Angle Shower Apparatus WASA at the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt. For monitoring all of the decay products of hyper nuclei, the detector has a better detection efficiency.

However, even with ordinary atomic nuclei, there remain numerous unanswered questions. For example, what role do symmetries play in nuclear reactions? This has been explored by researchers from Germany and the United States. This feature is used by scientists to anticipate the energy spectrum of certain quantum particle reactions. Their research extends the speculative suggestion of a hidden symmetry sector beyond the Standard Model of elementary particle physics to non-relativistic particles in the realm of strong interactions.

Tin-100, an isotope, also raises concerns. This exceedingly unusual nuclide is difficult to create in adequate amounts and eludes direct, exact measurements for the most part. So far, the literature has only two contradicting figures for the decay energy of tin-100. It was feasible to synthesize and investigate the neighbouring indium isotopes 99, 100, and 101 at CERN’s ISOLDE isotope separator. In the meanwhile, theorists have calculated indium, tin, and other atomic nuclei using cutting-edge ab initio techniques and two- and three-particle interactions. All approaches’ results exhibit the same patterns and accord well with the experimental data. Surprisingly, both theoretical predictions and experimental results support the earlier, more accurate decay energy value for tin-100 rather than the newer, less accurate measurement.

Another research is focusing on tin isotopes: An international team of researchers was able to identify helium nuclei in distinct tin isotopes and investigate the development of the likelihood of their production throughout the tin isotope chain in an experiment at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics in Osaka. The presence of helium nuclei in nuclear matter was anticipated theoretically and might be useful in modelling neutron stars, for example.

Nuclear scientists have been looking for an “island of stability” beyond naturally existing components for a long time. This is due to the fact that a miraculous combination of protons and neutrons in superheavy elements should result in dramatically increased half-lives. Experiments at the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt demonstrate that element 114 is not the heart of the island of stability, as is often assumed: the study shows that this isotope is no more stable than others in its proximity.

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A team of experts explored nuclear fission features using tests at the ALTO particle accelerator in Orsay, France. The experiments reveal that the resultant pieces acquire their spin only after fission, not before, as most theories previously supposed. The lack of a substantial relationship of the average spin seen in a fragment on the minimum spin required in the companion fragment startled the scientists the most.

Physicists use particle detectors to investigate not just the structure of matter, but also the components of dark matter, which plays a significant role in the cosmos as a whole. An international team has devised a new approach based on nuclear magnetic resonance that is five orders of magnitude more sensitive than existing methods for tracking down hypothetical light particles of dark matter. Initially, the scientists looked for signals in the mass range of a few femtoelectronvolts to roughly 800 feV, but discovered none. The search will now be expanded to include higher masses.

MicroBooNE has likewise been ineffective in its hunt for sterile neutrinos. So far, three kinds of neutrinos have been identified. However, physicists suspected sterile neutrinos, a previously unknown fourth form of neutrino, as a possible explanation for inconsistencies in prior studies. However, four separate tests conducted by the multinational MicroBooNE team provide no evidence for the existence of the hypothesized particles. The results, on the other hand, are compatible with the Standard Model of particle physics.

Neutrino interactions that are unique are another intriguing potential for departures from the Standard Model. Researchers at the Brokdorf nuclear power station are looking for such impacts as part of the CONUS project. So yet, the scientists have discovered nothing, but the preliminary findings established the best boundaries for some theoretical paths. The researchers utilized data from periods when the reactor was turned on and off to produce the current results. As a result, the processes they seek may be examined in more depth, and the possibility of new forms of physics can be narrowed down even further than previously.

Researchers are also on the lookout for neutrino interactions using the IceCube detector in the South Pole. The scientists studied whether atmospheric neutrinos had extra interactions with matter using data from three years of monitoring. This research just establishes new upper bounds for parameters used to define non-standard interactions.

It is critical to have exact theoretical predictions for the scattering of leptons by atomic nuclei for future neutrino experiments such as DUNE. Because experimental evidence on neutrino scattering by atomic nuclei is rare, a group of researchers explored the scattering of another lepton – the electron. The scientists were able to compute very exactly what happens during this electron scattering and how the calcium atomic nucleus behaves using a new ab initio approach. The team is now interested in the element argon and its interactions with neutrinos. Argon will be a significant target in the next DUNE experiment.

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Meanwhile, there appears to be evidence of departures from the Standard Model in the case of kaons (two-quark mesons). Kaons were found in cosmic rays in 1947, but they are now created and analysed using particle accelerators. Kaons are not stable, but disintegrate after a few billionths of a second on average. This decline is described by a Standard Model parameter. Its value may be calculated theoretically using experimental measurement data. However, if you repeat this process for different decay routes, you will obtain different results. This might point to physics beyond the Standard Model.

However, it is still questionable if the decay estimates within the context of the Standard Model are accurate enough. A team of researchers has succeeded in calculating the value of the parameter from kaon decays considerably faster and more precisely than before using a new approach. The results corroborate the disparity in the values. As a result, the evidence for novel physics beyond the Standard Model has grown stronger.


The Neutrino Energy Group is currently at the forefront of research and development when it comes to invisible radiation, especially Neutrinos

Neutrino Energy Group is currently successfully developing the Neutrinovoltaic Technology in laboratories around the world. It is indicated that neutrinovoltaic energy will first be used to power smartphones and laptop computers, along with pacemakers and other small devices. However, in the future, this energy source will be capable of supplying all electrical needs for a household.

The Neutrino Power Cell is composed of layers of silicon and carbon that are surgically placed to a metallic substrate with pinpoint accuracy, resulting in a resonance when neutrinos and other non-visible radiations strike them. The Neutrino Energy Group figured out how to construct a cell that could transform the appropriate degree of resonance into a resonant frequency on an electrical conductor and then collect the energy released by the resonance. The fact that the method does not need sunshine is a significant benefit. Neutrino Power Cubes are capable of converting little amounts of energy into useful electricity at any time of day or night, 365 days a year, wherever on the planet.

The new technology may make it possible for future generations to meet their energy needs without the need for inefficient infrastructure, competition for scarce natural resources, or an increase in environmental burden, all of which necessitate immediate action to prevent a climate catastrophe from occurring.

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