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The oceans, atmosphere, land, and biosphere of Earth all receive the majority of their energy from the Sun. Every square meter of Earth receives about 342 watts of solar energy on average over the course of a year. This is a huge quantity of energy—exactly 44 quadrillion (4.4 x 1016) watts of power. A major electric power plant, by comparison, generates roughly 1 billion (1 x 109) watts of power. For the energy produced by the Sun to be equaled, 44 million of these power plants would be required.

Thanks to the hard work of many geniuses over the past decades the sun’s energy can be harnessed for humanity’s need. Sunlight typically consists of three main parts: visible light, which has wavelengths between 0.4 and 0.8 micrometers; ultraviolet light, which has wavelengths less than 0.4 micrometers; and infrared radiation, which has wavelengths longer than 0.8 micrometers. But sunlight is only a fraction of the total spectrum of radiation striking the Earth.

Despite the extensive advancement of solar energy, this power generation technology is still highly dependent on the weather and cannot be used to produce electricity everywhere on Earth. Therefore, work to develop technology for power generation from radiation of the invisible spectrum of radiation, which constantly exists at any time of the day, anywhere on Earth and its intensity does not depend on weather conditions, is a priority task for scientists.

Neutrinovoltaic is the term given to a technology developed by scientists at Neutrino Energy Group that can harness the power of neutrinos and other forms of non-visible radiation. The name does not indicate that electricity is only produced by converting the neutral neutrino particle’s kinetic energy into an electric current. The Neutrino Energy Group’s president, Holger Thorsten Schubart, has emphasized numerous times in speeches that the name Neutrinovoltaic, which includes the designation of a “neutrino” particle, is more of a brand than it is a representation of the technology itself.

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The company’s scientists have succeeded in creating a nanomaterial that converts the energy of the surrounding energy fields of the invisible radiation spectrum into electricity. Neutrino Power Cubes can be placed outdoors, inside, or, for example, in the basement of an apartment building because energy fields are present every minute of the day, regardless of the weather, and have a high penetration capacity.

The structure of the nanomaterial is the essence of the technology and the know-how of the discovery. The nanomaterial is applied in layers to the metal foil, forming a densely compacted thin layer that forms a single unit with the foil, thus avoiding delamination of the nanomaterial during operation and a loss of its performance properties. The nanomaterial consists of alternating layers of graphene and doped silicon.

Although Professor Thibadeau (University of Arkansas) has demonstrated that placing a layer of graphene between two copper plates still produces alternating current even in the absence of doping agents, the frequency of alternating current is directly inversely correlated with the number of graphene wave contacts with the copper plate (Fig.1).

Fig.1. Schematic diagram of the experiment

Through a tunnelling scanning microscope, the experimenters observed that a wave emerged in graphene like a wave on the surface of the sea, i.e. graphene cannot exist in the 2D plane, but only in the 3D plane. It is this behaviour of graphene that has enabled the Neutrino Energy Group to create an electricity-generating nanomaterial.

A single layer of graphene generates very little power, the practical application of which is difficult to find. Neutrino Energy Group applied the process of layering graphene and silicon. The role of doping the nanomaterial is not only to increase the power, but also to rectify the generated current so that it flows in the same direction.

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Graphene and silicon belong to group 4 of the Mendeleev periodic system of chemical elements and have 4 covalent bonds. And while the specific conductivity of graphene is close to that of metals such as copper, silicon belongs to the semiconductor class. The concentration of natural charge carriers in silicon at room temperature is about 1.5⋅10^10 cm^-3. Therefore, to create n-type electronic or electrical conductivity in silicon, silicon is doped with elements of group 5 or 6 of the Mendeleev periodic system as stated in patent number EP3265850A1. The patent also states that graphene is doped with chemical elements having magnetic properties.

The electric current generated by the nanomaterial being applied to a metal substrate is directed in one direction. The question arises why a direct current is generated and not an alternating current as in Professor Thibadeau’s experiments? In the nanomaterial the graphene waves of each layer equally affect both silicon plates between which the graphene layer is placed and according to Lenz’s law the electromotive force of induction in a closed circuit is equal and opposite in sign to the rate of change of magnetic flux through the surface, so charged particles should be directed in both directions, but they are directed only in one direction.

Figure 2. Schematic representation of a nanomaterial

An analysis of patent number EP3265850A1 shows that doping occurs alongside graphene and silicon. Among the doping elements are germanium deposited on silicon layers and graphene being doped with samarium oxide. Films of these elements can create a p-n junction that creates a film diode effect, allowing electric current to flow only in one direction and blocking the passage of electric current in the other direction.

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Two industrial facilities are expected to begin operations in Switzerland and Korea the following year. While in Switzerland a small-scale plant is being built (100,000 generators with a capacity of 5-6 kW), in Korea a megafactory will be built that is expected to reach an annual production capacity of 30 GW by 2029, with a further increase in production volumes. Negotiations are currently underway to establish industrial production of Neutrinovoltaic generators in a number of other countries.

Based on the Neutrinovoltaic technology, a self-charging Pi-Car electric car is being developed. The bodt of which will have cells generating electricity under the influence of ambient energy fields and body heating temperature from the sun’s rays. The Pi-Car electric car is planned to be developed within 3 years. Neutrinovoltaic technology opens the way for mankind to tap into the limitless energy of the radiation fields of the invisible spectrum. The new knowledge will take humanity to the next stage of development allowing us to use natural resources rationally and carefully.

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