The great majority of galaxies, according to the conventional cosmological model, are surrounded by a halo of dark matter particles. The bulk of this invisible halo exerts a significant gravitational attraction on nearby galaxies. A recent study raises doubt on this cosmological theory. The results indicate that dwarf galaxies in the Fornax cluster, the second-closest galaxy cluster to Earth, do not have such dark matter halos. The Fornax cluster has an abundance of dwarf galaxies. Recent observations indicate that several of these dwarfs appear warped, as if they were affected by the environment of the cluster. According to the Standard Model, such disturbances are not expected in Fornax dwarfs, said Pavel Krupa, a scientist at the universities of Bonn and Charles in Prague. According to the traditional model, the dark matter halos around these dwarfs should partially shield them from the cluster’s tides.

The authors assessed the expected level of anxiety of dwarfs, which is dependent on their intrinsic features and distance from the gravitationally powerful cluster core. Large galaxies with little stellar mass and galaxies towards the center of a cluster are more susceptible to disruption or destruction. They matched the results to the observed amount of disruption visible in photos captured by the VLT Survey Telescope of the European Southern Observatory. “The comparison demonstrated that, if one wishes to explain the observations with the standard model, Fornax dwarfs should already be destroyed by gravity from the cluster’s center, even when the tides it causes on the dwarf are sixty-four times weaker than the dwarf’s own gravity,” said Elena Asensio. She explains that not only is this illogical, but it also contradicts prior studies which concluded that the external power required to perturb a dwarf galaxy is nearly equal to the dwarf’s intrinsic gravity.

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Discordance with the Standard Model The scientists found that the Standard Model cannot explain the observed morphology of Fornax dwarfs in a self-consistent manner. The analysis was repeated using Milgrom Dynamics (MOND). Instead of thinking that galaxies are surrounded by halos of dark matter, the MOND theory suggests a correction to Newtonian dynamics that strengthens gravity in the mode of tiny accelerations.

“We were uncertain that dwarf galaxies would be able to survive in the extreme conditions of the MOND galaxy cluster due to the lack of protective dark matter halos in this model,” admitted Dr. Indranil Banik of the University of St. Andrews. “However, our results demonstrate a remarkable agreement between observations and MOND’s predictions for Fornax dwarf outrage levels.” Co-authors of the work include Aku Venhola from the University of Oulu (Finland) and Steffen Miske from the European Southern Observatory.

This is not the first time an examination of the effect of dark matter on the dynamics and evolution of galaxies has determined that data are best explained when they are not surrounded by dark matter. “Every year, the number of articles illustrating the incompatibility of data and the dark matter paradigm grows. Pavel Krupa, a member of the Modeling and Matter transdisciplinary research areas at the University of Bonn, stated that it is time to devote more resources to more promising theories. Dr. Hongsheng Zhao from the University of St. Andrews remarked, “Our findings have significant implications for fundamental physics.” This prediction should be tested by other organizations because we anticipate to find additional perturbed dwarfs in other clusters. (API)

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